Faculty Profile

Clark W Bullard

Clark W Bullard
Clark W Bullard

Education

  • Ph.D., Aero/Astro E., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1971
  • M.S., Aero/Astro E., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1968
  • B.S., Aero/Astro E., University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1966

Biography

Clark Bullard retired after 35 years as an engineering professor at the University of Illinois, where he was founding director of the Air Conditioning & Refrigeration Center, a 25-company research consortium developing a new generation of energy-efficient technologies that use environmentally friendly refrigerants. He served during the Carter Administration as Director of the Conservation and Renewable Energy Policy Office at the Department of Energy, and during the Thompson and Edgar Administrations on many task forces and commissions related to Illinois water and energy policy. He has organized and led statewide citizens￿ groups that, among other things, stopped a reservoir project that would have destroyed Illinois￿ #1 river ecosystem, and established the first National Scenic River in the State. He currently serves on the boards of directors of the National Wildlife Federation and its Illinois affiliate, Prairie Rivers Network.

Academic Positions

  • Research Professor and Professor Emeritus, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, UIUC, 2003-date
  • Executive Director, Institute for Competitive Manufacturing, UIUC, 2001-2003
  • Professor, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, UIUC, 1990-2003
  • Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, UIUC, 1980-90
  • Director, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center, UIUC, 1989-2001
  • Director, Office of Energy Research, UIUC, 1980-90
  • Faculty Affiliate, Nuclear Engineering Department, UIUC, 1984-2012
  • Institute for Environmental Studies, UIUC, 1992-96
  • Program on Science, Technology, and Society, UIUC, 1980-90
  • Public Policy Program in the College of Engineering, UIUC, 1980-85
  • Visiting Fellow, Science Policy Research Unit, Sussex University, England, 1986
  • Visiting Associate Professor, Institute of Government and Public Affairs, UIUC, 1985-86
  • Research Associate Professor, Center for Advanced Computation, UIUC, 1976-77
  • Research Assistant Professor, Center for Advanced Computation, UIUC, 1971-76

Other Professional Employment

  • Central Midwest Low Level Radioactive Waste Commission (Gubernatorial appointment, Senate confirmation) Commissioner, 1984-98; Chair, 1984-95
  • Senior Analyst, U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Washington, DC, 1979-80
  • Director, Office of Conservation and Advanced Energy Systems Policy, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, 1977-79
  • Engineer-Scientist/Specialist, Advanced Aerothermodynamics and Flight Kinetics Depts., McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co., Santa Monica, CA, Summers 1966-69

Research Statement

Simulation and optimization models for technology policy analysis; thermal systems analysis.

Research Interests

  • Technological innovation. Identification of the physical characteristics of technologies that make it necessary to develop policies for establishing new economic and political institutions to facilitate technological innovation. Focus is on energy and environmental technologies.
  • Thermal systems analysis. Simulation, optimization, and parameter estimation based on full scale experimentation with air conditioning and refrigeration systems.
  • Simulation and optimization models for technology policy analysis. Development of simulation and optimization models of complex energy-economic systems containing explicit representations of technological change. Application to a wide range of technology policy issues, from acid rain to establishment of R&D priorities for various advanced energy technologies (cogeneration, refrigeration, coal cleaning, electric utility systems, radioactive waste disposal).

Selected Articles in Journals

  • Bullard, C. W., J. Proctor, J. Brezner, K. B. Mercer, R. A. Davis, "Modeling and Testing of a Utility Peak Reducing Residential Hot/Dry Air Conditioner (HDAC) using Microchannel Heat Exchangers," Transactions of ASHRAE, 112:1, 162-170, 2006.
  • Chandrasekharan, R., P. Verma, and C. W. Bullard, "Development of a Design Tool for Display Case Evaporators," International Journal of Refrigeration, 29, 823-832, 2006.
  • Poort, M. A. and C. W. Bullard, "Applications and Control of Air Conditioning Systems using Rapid cycling to Moderate Capacity," Int. J. of Refrigeration, 29, 683-691, 2006.
  • Tu, X., P. S. Hrnjak and C. W. Bullard, "Refrigerant 134a Liquid Flow Through Micro-Scale Short Tube Orifices With/Without Phase Change," Experimental Thermal Fluid Science, 30, 253-262, 2006.
  • Chandrasekharan, R. and C. W. Bullard, "Design Tool for Display Case Evaporators," Transactions of ASHRAE, 111:1, 1071-1082, 2005.
  • Barnes, P. R. and C. W. Bullard, "Minimizing TEWI in a Compact Chiller for Unitary Applications," Transactions of ASHRAE, 110:2, 335-344, 2004.
  • Kim, M.-H., J. Pettersen, and C. Bullard, "Fundamental Process and System Design Issues in CO2 Vapor Compression Systems," Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 30:2, 119-174, 2004.
  • Kulkarni, T., C. W. Bullard, and K. Cho, "Header Design Tradeoffs in Microchannel Evaporators," Applied Thermal Engineering, 24:5:6, 759-776, 2004.
  • Shah, R., A. G. Alleyne, and C. W. Bullard, "Dynamic Modeling and Control of Multi-evaporator Air Conditioning Systems," Transactions of ASHRAE, 110:1, 109-119, 2004.
  • Giannavola, S. M., J. M. Yin, C. W. Bullard, and P. S. Hrnjak, "Contribution of Heat Exchangers in Improved Performance of New Generation Automotive Air Conditioning System with R744," Transactions of ASHRAE, 109:1, 542-554, 2003.
  • Rasmussen, B., A. Musser, A. Alleyne, C. Bullard, P. Hrnjak, and N. Miller, "A Control-Oriented Model of Transcritical Air-Conditioning System Dynamics," SAE 2002 Transactions Journal of Passenger Cars--Mechanical Systems, 374-381, 2003.
  • Richter, M. R., S. M. Song, J. M. Yin, M. H. Kim, C. W. Bullard, and P. S. Hrnjak, "Experimental Results of Transcritical CO2 Heat Pump for Residential Application," Energy, 28:10, 1005-1019, 2003.
  • Sim￿Moreira, J. R. and C. W. Bullard, "Pressure Drop and Flashing Mechanisms in Refrigerant Expansion Devices," International Journal of Refrigeration, 26:7, 840-848, 2003.
  • Andrade, M. A. and C. W. Bullard, "Modulating Blower and Compressor Capacities for Efficient Comfort Control," Transactions of ASHRAE, 108:1, 631-637, 2002.
  • Bullard, C. W. and P. S. Hrnjak, "Research in Transcritical R744 at ACRC, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign," J. Soc. Air Conditioning and Refrig. Engrs. of Korea, 31:7, 32-52, 2002.
  • Bullard, C. W., J. M. Yin, and P. S. Hrnjak, "Compact Counterflow Gas Cooler for R744," Transactions of ASHRAE, 108:1, 487-491, 2002.
  • Bullard, C., C. Inan, N. Egrican, and T. Newell, "Moisture Transport in Domestic Refrigerators," Transactions of ASHRAE, 108:1, 801-806, 2002.
  • Inan, C., C. Bullard, N. Egrican, T. Newell, S. Cousins, and K. Mickelson, "Moisture Transport in Domestic Refrigerators," Transactions of ASHRAE, 108:1, 801-806, 2002.
  • Kim, M.-H. and C. W. Bullard, "Air-Side Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Multi-Louvered Fin Aluminum Heat Exchangers," International Journal of Refrigeration, 25, 390-400, 2002.
  • Kim, M.-H. and C. W. Bullard, "Performance Evaluation of a Window Room Air Conditioner with Micro-channel Condensers," Journal of Energy Resources Technology, 124, 47-55, 2002.
  • Kim, M.-H. and C. W. Bullard, "Thermal Performance Analysis of Small Hermetic Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Compressors," JSME Int. J. (Series A), 45:4, 2002.
  • Kim, M.-H., S. Song, and C. W. Bullard, "Effect of Inlet Humidity Condition on the Air-Side Performance of an Inclined Brazed Aluminum Evaporator," Int. J. Refrig., 25:5, 611-619, 2002.
  • Song, S., C. W. Bullard, and P. S. Hrnjak, "Frost Deposition and Refrigerant Distribution in Microchannel Heat Exchangers," Transactions of ASHRAE, 108:2, 944-953, 2002.
  • Stein, M. A., C. Inan, C. W. Bullard, and T. A. Newell, "Closed Door Moisture Transport in Refrigerator/Freezers," International Journal of Energy Research, 26, 793-805, 2002.
  • Yin, J. M., C. W. Bullard, and P. S. Hrnjak, "Single-phase Pressure Drop Measurements in a Microchannel Heat Exchanger," J. of Heat Transfer Engineering, 23:4, 3-12, 2002.
  • Boewe, D. E., C. W. Bullard, J. M. Yin, and P. S. Hrnjak, "Contribution of Internal Heat Exchanger to Transcritical R744 Cycle Performance," HVAC&R Research, 7:2, 155-168, 2001.
  • Bridges, B. D., D. S. Harshbarger, and C. W. Bullard, "Second Law Analysis of Refrigerators and Air Conditioners," ASHRAE Transactions, 107:1, 644-651, 2001.
  • Fang, X., C. W. Bullard, and P. S. Hrnjak, "Modeling and Analysis of Gas Coolers," ASHRAE Transactions, 107:1, 4-13, 2001.
  • Fang, X., D., C. W. Bullard, and P. S. Hrnjak, "Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Gas Coolers," ASHRAE Trans., 107:1, 255-266, 2001.
  • Kim, M. H. and C. W. Bullard, "Dynamic Characteristics of an R410A Split Air Conditioning System," International Journal of Refrigeration, 24:7, 692-701, 2001.
  • Kim, M.-H. and C. W. Bullard, "A Simple Approach to Thermal Performance Analysis of Small Hermetic Reciprocating Compressors," ASHRAETransactions, 107:1, 109-119, 2001.
  • Kim, M.-H. and C. W. Bullard, "Development of a Microchannel Evaporator Model for a CO2 Air Conditioning System," Energy, 26:10, 931-948, 2001.
  • Kim, M.-H., B. Youn, and C. W. Bullard, "Effect of Inclination on Air Side Performance of a Brazed Aluminum Heat Exchanger under Dry and Wet Conditions," International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 44, 4613-4623, 2001.
  • Kim, M.-H., J. S. Shin, and C. W. Bullard, "Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Characteristics During R22 Evaporation in an Oval Microfin Tube," Journal of Heat Transfer, 123, 301-308, 2001.
  • Singh, G. M., P. S. Hrnjak, and C. W. Bullard, "Flow of Refrigerant R134a through Orifice Tubes," Int. J. of HVAC&R Research, 7:3, 245-262, 2001.
  • Singh, G. M., P. S. Hrnjak, and C. W. Bullard, "Semi-empirical Model of Refrigerant R134a Flow Through Orifice Tubes," International Journal of HVAC&R Research, 7:3, 245-262, 2001.
  • Yin, J. M., C. W. Bullard and P. S. Hrnjak, "R-744 Gas Cooler Model Development and Validation," Int. J. of Refrigeration, 24, 692-701, 2001.
  • Liu, Y. and C. W. Bullard, "Diabatic Flow Instabilities in Capillary Tube-Suction Line Heat Exchangers," ASHRAE Transactions, 106:1, 517-523, 2000
  • Bullard, C. W. and A. V. Sebald, "Monte Carlo Sensitivity Analysis of Input Output Models," M. Input-Output Analysis (Inter. Lib. of Critical Writings in Economics, Elgat Ltd, London, UK), 1998.
  • Bullard, C. W., H. T. Weger, and J. Wagner, "Managing the Uncertainties of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal," Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 48, 701-710, 1998.
  • Kirby, E. S., C. W. Bullard, and W. E. Dunn, "Effect of Airflow Nonuniformity on Evaporator Performance," Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 104:2, 1998.
  • Mullen, C. E., B. D. Bridges, K. J. Porter, G. W. Hahn, and C. W. Bullard, "Development and Validation of a Room Air-Conditioning Simulation Model," Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 104:2, 1998.
  • Coulter, W. H. and C. W. Bullard, "An Experimental Analysis of Cycling Losses in Domestic Refrigerator-Freezers," Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 103:1, 587-596, 1997.
  • Goslovich, K. S. and C. W. Bullard, "Potential for Using Enhanced Aluminum Extrusions for Refrigerator Heat Exchangers," Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 103:1, 597-607, 1997.
  • Krause, P. E. and C. W. Bullard, "Cycling and Quasi-Steady Behavior of a Refrigerator," Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 102:1, 1061-1070, 1996.
  • Admiraal, D. M. and C. W. Bullard, "Experimental Validation of Heat Exchanger Models for Refrigerator/Freezers," Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 101:1, 34-43, 1995.
  • Cavallaro, A. R. and C. W. Bullard, "Effect of Variable-Speed Fans on Refrigerator Component Heat Transfer," Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 101:2, 1218-1224, 1995.
  • Rubas, P. J. and C. W. Bullard, "Factors Contributing to Refrigerator Cycling Losses," International Journal of Refrigeration, 18:3, 168-176, 1995.
  • Bullard, C. W. and R. Radermacher, "New Technologies for Air Conditioning and Refrigeration," Annual Review of Energy and Environment, 19, 113-152, 1994.
  • Reeves, R. N., C. W. Bullard, and R. R. Crawford, "Measurement of Refrigerator Component Performance," Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 100:1, 1335-1343, 1994.
  • Glaucio, P., M. T. A. Saif, and S. Mukherjee, "A Finite Elastic Body with a Curved Crack Loaded in Anti-Plane Shear," International Journal of Solids and Structures, 30:8, 1015-1037, 1993.
  • Ruth, M. and C. W. Bullard, "Information, Production and Utility," Energy Policy, 21:10, 1059-1067, 1993.
  • Bullard, C. W., "Low Level Radioactive Waste: Regaining Public Confidence," Energy Policy, 20:8, 712-720, 1992.
  • Bullard, C. W. and H. T. Weger, "LLRW Disposal: Economies of Scale and Waste-Type Segregation," Energy Systems and Policy, 14, 227-236, 1990.
  • Bullard, C. W, "An Analytical Framework for Preliminary Evaluation of Space Conditioning Systems," ASME Journal of Energy Resources and Technology, 111:2, 90-96, 1989.
  • Bullard, C. W, "Management and Control of Modern Technologies," Technology in Society, 10:2, 205-232, 1988.
  • Bullard, C. W. and R. Engelbrecht-Wiggans, "Intelligent Data Compression in a Coal Model," Operations Research, 36:4, 521-531, 1988.
  • Bullard, C. W., "Issues in Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management," Journal of Air Pollution Control and Hazardous Waste Management, 37:11, 1337-1341, 1987.
  • Bullard, C. W., "Nuclear Imperatives and Public Trust: Radioactive Waste," Issues in Science and Technology (National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington, D.C.), III:4, 8, 1987.
  • Bullard, C. W. and J. F. Klausner, "Empirical Analysis of Power Plant Siting," Energy Systems and Policy, 11:2, 103-120, 1987.
  • Bullard, C. W. and S. J. Pien, "Optimal Sizing of Cogeneration Systems," Transactions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 92:2, 321-332, 1987.
  • Bullard, C. W, "Risk, Science, and Democracy," Issues in Science and Technology (National Academy of Sciences Press, Washington, D.C.), I:4, 5-6, 1985.
  • Bullard, C. W, "Policies Guide Solar Technology Innovation," Mechanical Engineering, 104:12, 1982.
  • Bullard, C. W, "Energy Conservation in New Buildings: Opportunities, Experience, Options," Annual Review of Energy, 6, 199-232, 1981.
  • Bullard, C. W, "Energy and Economic Growth," American Economic Review, 68:2, 124-127, 1978.
  • Bullard, C. W., P. Penner and D. Pilati, "Net Energy Analysis Handbook for Combining Process and Input-Output Analysis," Resources and Energy, 1, 267-313, 1978.
  • Gibbons, J. H., C. W. Bullard, et al, "U.S. Energy Demand: Some Low Energy Futures," Science, 200:14, 142-152, 1978.
  • Hillman, A. L. and C. W. Bullard, "Energy, the Heckscher-Ohlin Theorem and U.S. International Trade," American Economic Review, 68:1, 96-106, 1978.
  • Bullard, C. W. and A. V. Sebald, "Effects of Parametric Uncertainty and Technological Change in Input-Output Models," Review of Economics and Statistics (LIX:1), 75-78, 1977.
  • Bullard, C. W, "Energy Costs, Benefits, and Net Energy," Energy Systems and Policy, 1:4, 367-382, 1976.
  • Bullard, C. W. and C. Z. Foster, "On Decoupling Energy and GNP Growth," Energy, 1, 291-300, 1976.
  • Herendeen, R. A. and C. W. Bullard, "U.S. Energy Balance of Trade,1963-1967," Energy Systems and Policy, 1:4, 383-390, 1976.
  • Bullard, C. W. and D. A. Pilati, "The Project Independence Construction Program--Resource Impacts," Energy, 1, 123-131, 1975.
  • Herendeen, R. A. and C. W. Bullard, "The Energy Cost of Goods and Services," Energy Policy, 3:4, 268-278, 1975.
  • Papis, T. and C. W. Bullard, "Attitude of a Spinning Rocket under Thrust with Statistically Varied Error Sources," Journal of Spacecraft and Rockets, 5:5, 606-610, 1968.

Professional Societies

  • Fellow, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 2001
  • Officer of the East-Central Illinois Chapter, ASHRAE, 1989-97
  • Chair and Vice-Chair, Refrigeration Technical Committee, ASHRAE, 1991-00
  • Technical Activities Committee, ASHRAE, 2000-2004
  • International Institute of Refrigeration, 1998-2010: Strategic Planning Committee; Science & Technology Council; Management Committee; Executive Committee; Commission President
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Federation of American Scientists
  • American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy
  • National Association for Science, Technology and Society (Charter Member)

Research Honors

  • J&E Hall Gold Medal, The Institute of Refrigeration, London, 2004
  • Resident Associate, Center for Advanced Study, University of Illinois, 1977
  • Visiting Associate Professor, Institute of Government and Public Affairs, University of Illinois, 1985
  • Fulbright-Hayes Research Award: Lectured on Technology Policy at four Universities in UK, 1986
  • Guest Scholar, USSR Academy of Sciences, Institute for High Temperatures, Sept.-Oct., 1987
  • Fellow, Royal Society of Arts, Commerce and Manufacturers (UK), 1987-2003
  • Fellow, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 2001
  • F. Paul Anderson Award for Technical Achievement, American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), 2004

Public Service Honors

  • Distinguished Service Award, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers, 2004
  • 2008 ASHRAE-Alco Medal for Distinguished Public Service, 2008
  • Chevron Conservation Award, Chevron USA, 1990